WEIGHT MANAGEMENT, GLYCEMIC CONTROL, METABOLIC HEALTH, DIET QUALITY, HUNGER AND APPETITE
Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.
Gibson SA, et al. Nutrients. 2016; 8, 9:1-15 (e-pub).
Summary: This analysis of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) observed associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), low-calorie sweetened beverages (LCB), non-consumers of soft drinks (NC) and consumers of both beverages (BB) with energy intake and diet quality. Results showed LCB and NC groups consumed less energy and sugars than consumers of SSB or BB. NC and LCB consumers had higher quality diets compared to SSB and BB consumers. They did not compensate for the sugar or energy deficit with more sugary foods.
The Effects of Water and Non-nutritive Sweetened Beverages on Weight Loss During a 12-week Weight Loss Treatment Program. Peters JC, et al. Obesity. 2014; 22(6):1415-21.
Summary: The study group in this 12 week weight control RCT trial was instructed to drink 24 fl.oz/day diet beverages (any type) and the control group was instructed to drink 24 fl.oz/day of water and no diet beverages. Results showed the diet beverage group lost significantly more weight, average of 13 pounds, or 44 percent more than control group (average 9 pounds). 64% of study group lost >5% of body weight, compared with 43% of control group. Diet beverage group experienced significantly less hunger. (Peters et al. 2016, below, summarizes the 9 month maintenance phase of this RCT.)
Peters, 2014: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20737/epdf
The Effects of Water and Non-nutritive Sweetened Beverages on Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Peters JC, et al. Obesity. 2016; 24(2):297-304.
Summary: After completing the 9 month maintenance phase of this 1 year behavioral treatment program, the diet beverage group showed statistically significant greater weight loss (6.21 ± 7.65 kg) than subjects in the water treatment group (2.45 ± 5.59 kg). Peters, 2016: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.21327/epdf
Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Intrahepatic Fat: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Campos V, et al. Obesity. 2015; 23:2335-2339.
Summary: Over a 12 week study period this RCT compared the impact of Artificially Sweetened Beverages (ASB) with Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB) on intrahepatic fat among overweight adults who usually consumed two or more 22- fl.oz. SSB daily. Results showed participants consuming ASB had significantly decreased total energy, carbohydrate, and sugar intakes. Subjects continuing to consume SSB showed no differences in intake. Dietary changes in the ASB group were accompanied by a significant decrease in intrahepatic fat.
Nonnutritive Sweeteners are not Supernormal Stimuli. Antenucci RG, et al. Int J Obes. 2015; 39(2):254-9.
Summary: Study participants were exposed to a series of taste tests with various caloric and nonnutritive sweeteners. Participants rated perceived sweetness. Results showed participants perceived the sweetness of NNS at lower concentrations than the caloric sweeteners and indicated caloric sweeteners all had higher sweetness ratings than NNS. Researchers concluded that results don’t support the claim that NNS produce a negative effect by over-stimulating peoples’ sweet taste receptors to produce supernormal stimuli.
Low/No Calorie Sweetened Beverage Consumption in National Weight Control Registry (NWCR). Catenacci VA, et al. Obesity. 2014; 22(10):2244-2251.
Summary: This study surveyed consumption of beverages with NNS in NWCR members with sustained weight loss for > 7 years. Results showed 53% regularly consumed NNS beverages, 10% regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). 78% of NNS consumers reported they helped control calorie intake. Choice of beverage was “very important” for weight loss (42%), weight maintenance (40%).
Consumption of LCS among U.S. Adults is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity. Drewnowski A, et al. Nutrients. 2014; 6:4389-4403.
Summary: This study analyzed NHANES data from 22,000 participants between 1999-2008 who consumed beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners with NNS. The USDA’s Healthy Eating Index was used to measure diet quality. Results showed people who use NNS have a higher HEI than non-consumers largely explained by lower calorie intake from solid fats, added sugars and alcohol. NNS users were found to practice other healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as physical activity, and less tobacco and alcohol use. http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/10/4389/htm
Non-Nutritive Sweeteners: No Class Effect on the Glycaemic or Appetite Responses to Ingested Glucose. Bryant CE, et al.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68:629-631.
Summary: This study examined the individual effect of acesulfame-K (AceK), aspartame and saccharin responses on glycemia and appetite in humans when consumed in combination with glucose in commonly used amounts. Results showed no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on glucose response any time during the 60 minute post-ingestion period. No NNS individually had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v68/n5/full/ejcn201419a.html (abstract)
Artificial Sweeteners Have No Effect on Gastric Emptying, Glucagon-like Peptide-1, or Glycemia after Oral Glucose in Healthy Humans. Wu T, et al. Diabetes Care.2013; 36:e202-e203.
Summary: This study fed four different drinks to healthy men: 1) water, 2) water with sucralose, 3) water with acesulfame-K (AceK), and 4) water with both sucralose and AceK. 10 minutes after consumption, a 75 gram oral glucose load was administered. Results showed neither sucralose alone, or when combined with AceK, had any acute effect on gastric emptying, GLP-1, or glycemic responses.
Replacing Caloric Beverages with Water or Diet Beverages for Weight Loss in Adults: Main Result of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) Randomized Control Trial. Tate D, et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95:555-563.)
Does Diet-Beverage Intake Affect Dietary Consumption Patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) Randomized Clinical Trial. Piernas C, et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97:604-611.
Summaries: CHOICE was a 6-month RCT with 3 groups: 1) diet beverage, 2) water or 3) control. Eligible subjects had to consume > 280 kcal/day sweetened beverages and commit to making a dietary change. Diet beverage and water groups substituted >2 servings/day of sweetened beverage with a diet beverage or water, respectively. Results: At 6 months diet beverage drinkers were more likely to achieve a 5% weight loss than water drinkers. A secondary analysis Piernas, et al., showed both study groups reduced total energy, carbohydrate, and added sugars. Diet beverage group participants reduced dessert consumption more than water drinkers.